I will check for errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar, and syntax. I will query or correct other errors or inconsistencies that may have escaped the copy editor.


In addition to proofreading, I will check for or impose a consistent style or format, read for overall clarity and sense, query or correct apparent errors or inconsistencies, note permissions needed to publish copyrighted material, prepare a manuscript for the next stage of publication, and cross-check references, art, tables, figures, and other features for consistency with their mentions in the text. Copyediting can be light, medium, or heavy (heavy copyediting begins to overlap with substantive editing).

Substantive editing

I will identify and suggest solutions for overall clarity or accuracy, reorganize paragraphs, sections, or chapters to improve the order in which the text is presented, write or rewrite segments of text to improve readability and flow of information, revise any or all aspects of the text to improve its presentation, and incorporate responses to queries and suggestions. This can involve substantial rewriting at the sentence level.


The cost of these services depends on many factors, including the level of editing required, the complexity or technical nature of the document, whether formatting is needed, how many rounds of editing are desired, and the turnaround time requested.

To prepare a reasonable estimate, I would need to review the materials and assess the scope of the project. Fees can be negotiated per hour, per project, or per page (the industry standard is 250 words per page).